NEET Biological Classification Terminologies

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Biological Classification Terminologies NEET

Note : All these Points of Biological Classification Terminology are directly taken from our favorite NCERT Textbook.

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Kingdom Monera Terminology

Monera: The kingdom of organisms comprising bacteria as the sole members, characterized by their simplicity and ubiquity in various habitats.

Coccus (pl.: cocci): Spherical-shaped bacteria.

Bacillus (pl.: bacilli): Rod-shaped bacteria.

Vibrium (pl.: vibrio): Comma-shaped bacteria.

Spirillum (pl.: spirilla): Spiral-shaped bacteria.

Archaebacteria: A group of bacteria that thrive in extreme environments such as hot springs, salty areas, and marshes, characterized by a unique cell wall structure.

Eubacteria: A diverse group of bacteria characterized by a rigid cell wall and, if motile, a flagellum.

Cyanobacteria: Also known as blue-green algae, cyanobacteria are photosynthetic autotrophs with chlorophyll a similar to green plants.

Heterocysts: Specialized cells in cyanobacteria capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen.

Chemosynthetic autotrophic bacteria: Bacteria that oxidize various inorganic substances for energy production, contributing to nutrient recycling in ecosystems.

Heterotrophic bacteria: Bacteria that depend on other organisms or dead organic matter for nutrition, often serving as decomposers in ecosystems.

Mycoplasma: Organisms lacking a cell wall, characterized by their small size and ability to survive without oxygen, many of which are pathogenic in animals and plants.

Fission: A method of bacterial reproduction where a single cell divides into two identical daughter cells.

Spores: Dormant, resistant structures produced by bacteria under unfavorable conditions for survival.

Pathogenic: Referring to organisms or substances capable of causing disease.

DNA Transfer: A primitive form of sexual reproduction in bacteria involving the exchange of genetic material between individual cells.

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Kingdom Protista Terminology

Dinoflagellates: Mostly marine and photosynthetic protists with varying colors (yellow, green, brown, blue, or red) depending on their pigments. They have a stiff cellulose cell wall and typically two flagella.

Euglenoids: Freshwater organisms found in stagnant water. They lack a cell wall and have a flexible protein-rich layer called pellicle. Euglenoids have two flagella and can behave like heterotrophs in the absence of sunlight.

Pellicle: A protein-rich layer found in euglenoids that provides flexibility to their body.

Saprophytic: Referring to organisms that obtain nutrients by decomposing dead organic matter.

Plasmodium: In slime moulds, an aggregation of protoplasm containing many nuclei and capable of moving and engulfing organic material.

Fruiting Bodies: Structures produced by slime moulds during unfavorable conditions, bearing spores at their tips for dispersal.

Spores: Reproductive structures produced by slime moulds that possess true walls and are dispersed by air currents. They are extremely resistant and can survive adverse conditions.

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Kingdom Fungi Terminology

Fungi: A kingdom of heterotrophic organisms showing diversity in morphology and habitat, including organisms like mushrooms, toadstools, and parasitic fungi.

Yeast: Unicellular fungi used in the production of bread and beer through fermentation.

Parasitic Fungus: Fungi that cause diseases in plants and animals, such as wheat rust-causing Puccinia.

Antibiotics: Chemical substances produced by fungi like Penicillium, used to inhibit the growth of bacteria.

Mycelium: The network of long, slender thread-like structures called hyphae, forming the body of fungi.

Hyphae: Filamentous structures constituting the mycelium of fungi, some of which are coenocytic (multinucleated) or possess septae (cross walls).

Chitin: A structural polysaccharide found in the cell walls of fungi, along with other polysaccharides.

Saprophytes: Fungi that obtain nutrients by decomposing dead organic matter.

Parasites: Fungi that depend on living plants and animals for their nutrition.

Symbionts: Fungi that live in association with other organisms, such as lichens (with algae) and mycorrhizae (with plant roots).

Conidia: Asexual spores produced by fungi for reproduction.

Sporangiospores: A type of asexual spore formed within specialized structures called sporangia.

Zoospores: A type of asexual spore with flagella, allowing motility in water.

Oospores, Ascospores, and Basidiospores: Different types of sexual spores produced by fungi during sexual reproduction.

Fruiting Bodies: Structures in which spores are produced during sexual reproduction, forming distinct structures for different fungal classes.

Plasmogamy: Fusion of protoplasm between two gametes during sexual reproduction in fungi.

Karyogamy: Fusion of nuclei following plasmogamy during sexual reproduction.

Dikaryon: A stage in some fungi (such as ascomycetes and basidiomycetes) where two nuclei coexist in each cell, before fusion to form diploid cells.

Dikaryophase: The phase of a fungus characterized by the presence of a dikaryon.

Reduction Division: Meiosis in the zygote, resulting in the formation of haploid spores during sexual reproduction in fungi.

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Kingdom Plantae Terminology

Plantae: Kingdom comprising eukaryotic chlorophyll-containing organisms commonly known as plants, including algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, and angiosperms.

Insectivorous plants: Plants that supplement their nutrient intake by trapping and digesting insects, such as bladderwort and Venus flytrap.

Parasite: An organism that lives in or on another organism (host) and benefits at the host’s expense, such as Cuscuta, a parasitic plant.

Eukaryotic: Organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, including prominent chloroplasts and a cell wall primarily made of cellulose.

Chloroplasts: Organelles found in plant cells and other eukaryotic organisms that conduct photosynthesis, containing chlorophyll.

Cellulose: A complex carbohydrate that forms the primary structural component of plant cell walls.

Alternation of Generations: A phenomenon in the life cycle of plants where two distinct phases, the diploid sporophytic phase and the haploid gametophytic phase, alternate with each other.

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Kingdom Animalia Terminology

Animalia: Kingdom comprising heterotrophic eukaryotic organisms that are multicellular and lack cell walls. Animals directly or indirectly depend on plants for food, digest their food internally, and store food reserves as glycogen or fat. They exhibit holozoic nutrition by ingesting food.

Holozoic Nutrition: Mode of nutrition in which organisms ingest food for digestion, absorption, and utilization.

Glycogen: A polysaccharide that serves as a form of energy storage in animals, stored primarily in the liver and muscles.

Copulation: The process of sexual reproduction in animals involving the joining of male and female reproductive organs for fertilization.

Embryological Development: The process of growth and differentiation undergone by an embryo to form a mature organism.

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Viruses, Viroids and Lichens Terminology

Viruses: Non-cellular organisms characterized by inert crystalline structures outside living cells. They infect host cells and replicate using the host’s machinery. Viruses are obligate parasites containing genetic material (RNA or DNA) surrounded by a protein coat called capsid.

Capsid: The protein coat of a virus composed of small subunits called capsomeres. It protects the viral genetic material.

RNA (Ribonucleic Acid): A nucleic acid molecule essential for various biological roles, including carrying genetic information in some viruses.

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid): A nucleic acid molecule carrying genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth, and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

Bacteriophages: Viruses that infect bacteria, typically double-stranded DNA viruses.

Viroids: Infectious agents smaller than viruses, consisting of free RNA lacking a protein coat. Viroids cause diseases in plants.

Prions: Infectious agents consisting of abnormally folded proteins, causing neurological diseases in animals and humans. Notable diseases include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD).

Lichens: Symbiotic associations between algae (phycobiont) and fungi (mycobiont). Algae provide food through photosynthesis, while fungi provide shelter and absorb mineral nutrients and water for their partner. Lichens are indicators of pollution levels, as they do not grow in polluted areas.

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